DMCS Publications 2012

McCay, Bonnie J. 2012. Shifts in fishing grounds. Nature Climate Change 2: 840–841

Johnson, Teresa R. and Bonnie J. McCay 2012. Trading expertise: The rise and demise of an industry/government committee on survey trawl design. Maritime Studies, 11:14. doi:10.1186/2212-9790-11-14

Vardi, A., L. Haramaty, B.A.S. Van Mooy, H.F. Fredricks, S.A. Kimmance, A. Larsen, and K.D. Bidle. 2012. Host–virus dynamics and subcellular controls of cell fate in a natural coccolithophore population. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109(47): 19327-19332.

Bidle, K.D. and C.J. Kwityn. 2012. Assessing the role of caspase activity and metacaspase expression on viral susceptibility of the coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi. J. Phycol. 48(5): 1079-1089.

Frada, M.J., K.D. Bidle, I. Probert, C. de Vargas. 2012 In situ survey of life cycle phases of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta). Environ. Microbiol. 14(6):1558-1569.

Thamatrakoln, K., O. Korenovska*, A.K. Niheu, and K.D. Bidle. 2012. Whole-genome expression analysis reveals a role for death-related genes in stress acclimation of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Environ. Microbiol. 14(1): 67-81. 

Ghatak, D., C. Deser, A. Frei, G. Gong, A. Phillips, D. Robinson, and J.Stroeve. 2012. Simulated Siberian Snow Cover Response to Observed Arctic Sea Ice Loss, 1979-2008 . Journal of Geophysical Research, 117, D23, doi:10.1029/2012JD018047. 

Zhang, G., X. Fang, X. Guo, et al. 2012. The oyster genome reveals stress adaptation and complexity of shell formation. Nature, 490:49-54. (

Zhang, Y., Z. Wang, X. Yan, R. Yu, J. Kong, J. Liu, X. Li, Y. Li and X. Guo. 2012. Laboratory hybridization between two oysters: Crassostrea gigas and Crassostrea hongkongensis. J. Shellfish Res., 31(3):619-625.

He, Y., H. Yu, Z. Bao, Q. Zhang and X. Guo. 2012. Mutation in promoter region of a serine protease inhibitor confers Perkinsus marinus resistance in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) . Fish & Shellfish Immunology 33: 411-417.

Yang, H., E. Hu, R. Cuevas-Uribe, J. Supan, X. Guo, T.R. Tiersch. 2012. High-throughput sperm cryopreservation of eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. Aquaculture, 344-349: 223–230.

Saba GK, Schofield O, Torres JJ, Ombres EH, Steinberg DK (2012) Increased Feeding and Nutrient Excretion of Adult Antarctic Krill, Euphausia superba, Exposed to Enhanced Carbon Dioxide (CO2) . PLoS ONE 7(12): e52224. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052224

Xu, Y., Cahill, B., Wilkin, J., Schofield, O. 2012. Role of wind in regulating phytoplankton blooms on the Mid-Atlantic Bight . Continental Shelf Research


Gangopadhyay, A., Schmidt, A., Agel, L., Schofield, O., Clark, J. 2012. Multiscale forecasting in the wester North Atlantic: Sensitivity of model forecast skill to glider data assimilation .

Grothues, T. M., Able, K. W., Pravatiner, J. H. 2012. Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus Walbaum) burial in estuaries: Acoustic telemetry triumph and tribulation . Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 438:125-136.

Weis, J. S. 2012. Walking Sideways: the Remarkable World of Crabs . Cornell University Press. 256 pp.


Andrianasolo, E. H., Haramaty, L., Rosario-Passapera, R., Vetriani, C., Falkowski, P. G., White, E., Lutz. 2012. Ammonficins C and D, Hydroxyethylamine chromene derivatives from a cultured marine hydrothermal vent bacterium, Thermovibrio ammonificans . Marine Drugs. 10: 2300-2311. doi:10.3390/md10102300


Sosdian, S. M., Lear, C. H., Tao, K., Grossman, E. L., O'Dea, A., Rosenthal, Y. 2012. Cenozoic seawater Sr/Ca evolution . Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 13(10). doi:10.1029/2012GC004240


Elmore, A. C., Sosdian, S., Rosenthal, Y., Wright, J. D. 2012. A global evaluation o temperature and carbonate ion control on Mg/Ca ratios of ostracoda genus Krithe . Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 13(9): doi:10.1029/2012GC004073


Miller, K. G., Wright, J. D., Browning, J. V., Kulpecz, A., Kominz, M., Nalsh, T. R., Cramer, B. S., Rosenthal, Y., Peltier, R., Sosdian, S. 2012. High tide of the warm Pliocene: Implications of global sea level for Antarctic deglaciation. Geological Society of America. doi: 10.1130/G32869.1


Reinfelder, J. R. 2012. Carbon dioxide regulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in four species of marine phytoplankton. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 466: 57-67. doi: 10.3354/meps09905


Tarique, Q. Burger, J., Reinfelder, J. R. 2012. Metal concetrations in organs of the clam Amiantis umbonella and their use in monitoring metal contamination of coastal sediments . Water Air Soil Pollution 223: 2125-2136.


Thorson, J. T., Cope, J. M., Branch, T. A., Jensen, O. P. 2012. Spawning biomass reference points for exploited marine fishes, incorporating taxonomic and body size information . Canadian Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Sciences 69: 1-13. DOI:10.1139/F2012-077


Zhu, W., Reinfelder, J. R. 2012. The microbial community of a black shale pyrite biofilm and its implications for pyrite weathering. Geomicrobiology Journal 29: 186-193. DOI: 10.1080/01490451.2010.539663


Saba, G., Steinberg, D. K. 2012. Abundance, composition, and sinking rates of fish fecal pellets in the Santa Barbara Channel . Scientific Reports. 2: 716. DOI: 10.1038/srep00716


Zavala-Garay, J., Wilkin, J. L., Arango, H. G. 2012. Predictability of mesoscale variability in the East Australian current given strong-constraint assimilation. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 42: 1402-1420. DOI: 10.1175/JPO-D-11-0168.1


Dighton, J., Helmisaari, H. S., Maghrang, M., Smith, S., Malcom, K., Johnson, W., Quast, L., Lallier, B., Gray, D., Setala, H., Star, M., Luiro, J., Kukkola, M. 2012. Impacts of forestpost thinning residues on soil chemistry, fauna, and roots: Implications of residue removal in Finland . Applied Soil Ecology 60: 16-22.


Geng, Y., Dighton, J., gray, D. 2012. The effects of thinning and soil disturbance on enzyme activities under pitch pine soil in New Jersey Pinelands . Applied Soil Ecology. 62: 1-7.


Gray, D. M., Swanson, J., Dighton, J. 2012. The influence of contrasting ground cover vegetation on soil properties in the NJ pine barrens . Applied Soil Ecology. 60: 41-48.


Wade, B. S., Houben, A. J. P., Quaitaal, W., Schouten, S., Rosenthal, Y., Miller, K. G., Katz, M. E., Wright, J. D., Brinkhuis, H. 2012. Multiproxy record of abrupt sea-surface cooling across the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the Gulf of Mexico . Geological Society of America. 40(2): 159-162. doi:10.1130/G32577.1


Tierney, J. E., Oppo, D. W., Legrande, A. N., Huang, Y., Rosenthal, Y., Linsley, B. K. 2012. The influence of Indian Ocean atmospheric circulation on Warm Pool hydroclimate during the Holocene epoch . Journal of Geophysical Research. 117, D19108, doi:10.1029/2012JD018060


Irali, N., Ninnemann, U. S., Galaasen, E., Rosenthal, Y., Kroon, D., Oppo, D. W., Kleiven, H. F., Darling, K. F., Kissel, C. 2012. Rapid switches in subpolar North Atlantic hydrography and climate during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e) . Paleooceanography 27, PA2207, doi:10.1029/2011PA002244


Allen, K. A., Honisch, B., Eggins, S. M., Rosenthal, Y. 2012. Environmental controls on B/Ca in calcite tests of the tropical planktonic foraminifer species Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerinoides sacculifer . Earth and Planetary Science Letters.


Wuenschel, M. J., Hare, J. A., Kimball, M. E., Able, K. W. 2012. Evaluating juvenile thermal tolerance as a constraint on adult range of gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus): A combined laboratory, field and modeling approach . Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology.


Kimball, M. E., Able, K. W. 2012. Tidal migrations of intertidal salt marsh creek nekton examined with underwater video . Northeastern Naturalist 19(3): 475-486.


Zhang, G. and others. 2012. The oyster genome reveals stress adpatation and complexity of shell formation . Nature. doi:10.1038/nature11413


Planquette, H., Sherrell, R. M. 2012. Sampling for particulate trace element determination using water bottles: methodology and comparison to in situ pump . Limnology and Oceanography Methods 10: 367-388. DOI 10.4319/lom.2012.10.367


Agagnostou, E., Huang, K. F., You, C. F., Sikes, E. J., Sherrell, R. M. 2012. Evaluation of bron isotope ratio as a pH proxy in the deep sea coral Desmophyllum dianthus: Evidence of physiological pH adjustment . Earth and Planetary Science Letters 349-350: 251–260


Hofmann, E. E., Ford, S. E. 2012. An introduction to Ecology of Infectious Diseases - Oysters and Estuaries. Journal of Marine Research. 70:I-IIIV


Ford, S. E., Bushek, D. 2012. Development of resistance to an introduced marine pathogen by a native host Journal of Marine Research. 70: 205-223


Bushek, D., Ford, S. E., Burt, I. 2012. Long-term patterns of an estuarine pathogen along a salinity gradient Journal of Marine Research. 70: 225-251


Ford, S. E., Scarpa, E., Bushek, D. 2012. Spatial and temporal variability of disease refuges in an estuary: Implications for the development of resistance Journal of Marine Research. 70: 253-277.

Wang, Z., Haidvogel, D. B., Bushek, D., Ford, S. E., Hofmann, E. E., Powell, E. N., Wilkin, J. 2012. Circulation and water properties and their relationship to the oyster disease MSX in Delaware Bay Journal of Marine Research. 70: 279-308.


Powell, E. N., Klinck, J. M., Guo, X., Hofman, E. E., Ford, S. E., Bushek, D. 2012. Can oysters Crassostrea virginica develop resistance to dermo disease in the field: The impediment posed by climate cycles Journal of Marine Research. 70: 309-355


He, Y., Ford, S. E., Bushek, D., Powell, E. n., Bao, Z., Guo, X., 2012. Effective population sizes of eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) populations in Delaware Bay, USA Journal of Marine Research. 70: 357-379

Narvaez, D A., Klinck, J. M., Powell, E. N., Hofmann, E. E., Wilkin, J., Haidvogel, D. B. 2012. Modeling the dispersal of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae in Delaware Bay Journal of Marine Research. 70: 381-409


Narvaez, D. A., Klinck, J. M., Powell, E. N., Hofmann, E. E., Wilkin, J., Haidvogel, D. B. 2012. Circulation and behavior controls on dispersal of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae in Delaware Bay Journal of Marine Research. 70: 411-440


Munroe, D. M., Klinck, J. M., Hofmann, E. E., Powell, E. N. 2012. The role of larval dispersal in metapopulation gene flow: Local population dynamics matter Journal of Marine Research. 70: 441-467


Powell, E. N., Kreeger, D. A., Morson, J. M., Haidvogel, D. B., Wang, Z., Thomas, R., Gius, J. E. 2012. Oyster food supply in Delaware Bay: Estimation from a hydrodynamic model and interaction with the oyster population Journal of Marine Research. 70: 469-503

Powell, E. N., Klinck, J. M., Ashton-Alcox, K., Hofmann, E. E., Morson, J. 2012. The rise and fall of Crassostrea virginica oyster reefs: The role of disease and fishing in their demise and a vignette on their management Journal of Marine Research. 70: 505-558

Miles, T., Glenn, S. M., Schofield, O. 2012. Temporal and spatial variability in fall storm induced sediment resuspension on the Mid-Atlantic Bight . Continental Shelf Research.

William B. Homoky, Silke Severmann, James McManus, William M. Berelson, Timothy E. Riedel, Peter J. Statham, Rachel A. Mills. Dissolved oxygen and suspended particles regulate the benthic flux of iron from continental margins. Marine Chemistry 134-135 (2012) 59–70 doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2012.03.003

James McManus, WilliamM.Berelson, SilkeSevermann, KennethS.Johnson, Douglas E.Hammond, MoutusiRoy, KennethH.Coale. Benthic manganese fluxes along the Oregon–California continental shelf and slope. Continental Shelf Research 43(2012)71–85

Jeremy D. Owens, Timothy W. Lyons, Xiaona Li, Kenneth G. Macleod, Gwenyth Gordon, Marcel M. M. Kuypers, Ariel Anbar, Wolfgang Kuhnt, and Silke Severmann. Iron isotope and trace metal records of iron cycling in the proto-North Atlantic during the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event (OAE-2) Paleoceanography, Vol. 27, PA3223, doi:10.1029/2012PA002328, 2012

Oliver, M.J., M.A. Moline, I. Robbins, W. Fraser, D. Patterson, and O. Schofield. 2012. Letting penguins lead: Dynamic modeling of penguin locations guides autonomous robotic sampling. Oceanography 25(3):120–121,

Rintoul, S.R., M.P. Meredith, O. Schofield, and L. Newman. 2012. The Southern Ocean Observing System. Oceanography 25(3):68–69,

Yager, P.L., R.M. Sherrell, S.E. Stammerjohn, A.-C. Alderkamp, O. Schofield, E.P. Abrahamsen, K.R. Arrigo, S. Bertilsson, D.L. Garay, R. Guerrero, K.E. Lowry, P.-O. Moksnes, K. Ndungu, A.F. Post, E. Randall-Goodwin, L. Riemann, S. Severmann, S. Thatje, G.L. van Dijken, and S. Wilson. 2012. ASPIRE: The Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition. Oceanography 25(3):40–53,

Germanovich, L. N., Grenc, G., Lowell, R. P., Rona, P. A. 2012. Deformation and surace uplift associated with serpentinization at mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones . Journal of Geophysical Ressearch. vol. 117, B07103, doi:10.1029/2012JB009372

Newnham, R. M., Vandergoes, M. J., Sikes, E., Carter, L., Wilmshurst, J. M., Lowe, D. J., McGlone, M. S., Sandiford, A. 2012. Does the bipolar seesaw extend to the terresterial southern mid-latitudes? Quaternary Science reviews. 36: 214-222. doi: 10.1016/jquatscirev.2011.04.013

Medeiros, P. M., Sikes, E. L., Thomas, B., Freeman, K. H. 2012. Flow discharge influences on input and transport of particulate and sedimentary organic carbon along a small temperate river . Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 77: 317-334. doi10.1016j.gca.2011.11.020

Kennish, M. J. , B. Fertig, and G. P. Sakowicz. 2012. Benthic macroalgal blooms as an indicator of system eutrophy in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary. Bulletin of the New Jersey Academy of Science, 56: 1-5.

Merlin, Y., Hernández, A., Calderón, M., Jensen, O.P., Zaragoza, R., and L. Zambrano. 2012. Urban expansion into a protected natural area in Mexico City: alternative management scenarios . Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. doi: 10.1080/09640568.2012.683686

Thorson, J.T., Branch, T.A., and O.P. Jensen. 2012. Using model-based inference to evaluate global fisheries status from landings, location and life history data. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 69:645-655

Schofield, O., Meredith, M., Newman, L., Sparrow, M., Urban, E. 2012. Implementing a southern ocean observing system. EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 39(26): 241-243.

Reiss, P., K. W. Able, M. S. Njunes, an Tomas Hrbek. 2012. Color pattern variation in Chicla temensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae): Resolution based on morphological, molecular, and reproductive data . Neotropical Ichthyology 10(1): 59-70.

Wuenschel, M., K. W. Able, J. Buckel, J. Morley, T. Lankford, A. Branson, D. Conover, D. Drisco, A. Jordaan, K. Dunton, D. Secor, R. Woodland, F. Juanes, and D. Stormer. 2012. Recruitment patterns and habitat use of young-of-the-year bluefish along the United States east coast: insights from coordinated coastwide sampling . Reviews in Fisheries Science 20(2):80-102.

Able, K. W., T. M. Grothues, J. T. Turnure, D. M. Byrne, and P. Clerkin. 2012. Distribution, movements, and habitat use of small striped bass (Morone saxatilis) across multiple spatial scales . Fishery Bulletin 110:176-192.

Naud, C.M., J.R. Miller, and C. Landry, 2012. Using satellites to investigate the sensitivity of longwave downward radiation to water vapor at high elevations . J. Geophys. Res., 117, D0510. doi:10.1029/2011JD016917

Hilborn, R., Stewart, I.J., Branch, T.A., and O.P. Jensen. 2012. Defining trade-offs among conservation of species diversity, profitability, and food security in the California Current bottom trawl fishery . Conservation Biology 26:257-266. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2011.01800.x

Essington, T.E., Melnychuk, M.C., Branch, T.A., Heppell, S.S., Jensen, O.P., Link, J.S., Martell, S.J.D., Parma, A.M., Pope, J.G., Smith, A.D.M. 2012. Catch shares, fisheries and ecological stewardship: a comparative analysis of resource responses to a rights-based policy instrument . Conservation Letters. DOI:10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00226.x

Mass, T., Drake, J. L., Haramaty, L., Rosenthal, Y., Schofield, O., Sherrell, R. M., Falkowski, P. G. 2012. Aragonite preciptitation by "Proto-Polyps" in coral cell cultures . PLoS one. 7(4): e35049 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035049

Lutz, R. A., Falkowski, P. G. 2012. A dive to Challenger deep . Science. doi: 10.1126/science.1222641

Kennish, M. J. and V. N. de Jonge. 2012. Chemical introductions to the systems: Diffuse and nonpoint source pollution from chemicals (nutrients: eutrophication). Pp. 113-148. In: Kennish, M. J. and M. Elliott, eds., Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science, Vol. 8, Human-induced Problems (Uses and Abuses). Elsevier, Oxford, UK, ISBN 978-0-12-374711-2. 315 pp.

Elliott, M. and M. J. Kennish. 2012. Human-induced problems (uses and abuses): Overview. Pp. 1-14. In: Kennish, M. J. and M. Elliott, eds., Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science, Vol. 8, Human-induced Problems (Uses and Abuses). Elsevier, Oxford, UK, ISBN 978-0-12-374711-2. 315 pp.

Harel, A., Falkowski, P., Bromberg, Y. 2012. TrAnsFuSE refines the search for protein function: oxidireductases. Integrative Biology. DOI: 10.1039/c2ib00131d

Ducklow, H. D., Schofield, O., Vernet, M., Stammerjohn, S., Erickson, M. 2012. Multiscale control of bacterial production by phytoplankton dynamics and sea ice along the wester Antarctic Peninsula: A regional and decadal investigation . Journal of Marine Systems. doi:10.1016/j.j,arsys.2012.03.003

Kim, J. D., Rodriguez-Granillo, Case, D. A., Nanda, V., Falkowski, P. G. 2012. Energetic selection of topology in ferredoxins. Plos Computational Biology. 8(4). doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002463.g001

Rangwala I., (2012). Amplified Water Vapor Feedback at High Altitudes during Winter . International Journal of Climatology. DOI: 10.1002/joc.3477.

Rangwala I. and J. Miller, (2012). Climate Change in Mountains: A Review of Elevation Dependent Warming and its Possible Causes . Climatic Change. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-012-0419-3.

Rangwala I., J. Barsugli, K. Cozzetto, J. Neff and J. Prairie, (2012). Mid-21st Century Projections in Temperature Extremes in the Southern Colorado Rocky Mountains from Regional Climate Models . Climate Dynamics. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-011-1282-z.

Francis, J. A., Vavrus, S. J. 2012. Evidence linking Arctic amplification to extreme weather in mid-latitudes . Geophysical Research Letters. vol. 39, L06801, doi:10.1029/2012GL051000

Bricelj, V. M., Haubois, A. G., Sengco, M. R., Pierce, R. H., Culter, J. K., Anderson, D. M. 2012. Trophic transfer of brevetoxins to the benthic macrofaunal community during a bloom of the harmful dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in Sarasota Bay, Florida . Harmful Algal 1: 27-34. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2012.01.001

Able, K. W., D. N. Vivian, G. Petruzzelli, S. M. Hagan. 2012. Connectivity among salt marsh subhabitats: residency and movements of the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). Estuaries and Coasts. DOI 10.1007/s12237-011-9471-x.

Bemis, K., R.P. Lowell, and A. Farough. 2012. Diffuse flow on and around hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges . Oceanography 25(1):182–191,

Di Iorio, D., J.W. Lavelle, P.A. Rona, K. Bemis, G. Xu, L.N. Germanovich, R.P. Lowell, and G. Genc. 2012. Measurements and models of heat flux and plumes from hydrothermal discharges near the deep seafloor . Oceanography 25(1):168–179,

Falkowski, P. G. 2012. The power of plankton. Nature 483: 517-520.

Weis, J.S. and A. Candelmo 2012. Pollution and fish predator/prey behavior: A review of laboratory and field approaches. Curr. Zool. 58: 9-20.

Ducklow, H. W., Clarke, A., Dickhut, R., Doney, S. C., Geisz, H., Huang, K., Martinson, D. G., Meredith, M. P., Moeller, H. V., Montes-Hugo, M., Schofield, O., Stammerjohn, S. E. Steinberg, D., Fraser, W. 2012. The Marine Ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula. In Antarctic Ecosystems: An Extreme Environment in a Changing World. Rogers, A. D., Johnston, N. M., Murphy, E. J., Clarke, A. (Eds). Wiley Blackwell, ISBN: 978-1-4051-9840-0. 564 pp.

Jensen, O.P., Branch, T.A., and R. Hilborn. 2012. Marine fisheries as ecological experiments . Theoretical Ecology. DOI 10.1007/s12080-011-0146-9

Ahrenstorff, T.D., Jensen, O.P., Weidel, B.C., Mendsaikhan, B., and T.R. Hrabik. 2012. Abundance, spatial distribution, and diet of endangered Hovsgol grayling ( Thymallus nigrescens) . Environmental Biology of Fishes. DOI 10.1007/s10641-011-9961-5

Benson, B., Magnuson, J.J., Jensen, O.P., Card, V.M., Hodgkins, G., Korhonen, J., Livingstone, D.M., Stewart, K.M., Weyhenmeyer, G.A., Granin, N.G. 2012. Extreme events, trends, and variability in Northern Hemisphere lake-ice phenology (1855 - 2005 ). Climatic Change. DOI 10.1007/s10584-011-0212-8

Milke, L. M., Bricelj, M. V., Ross, N. W. 2012. Changes in enzymatic activity during early development of bay scallops Argopecten irradians and sea scallops Placopecten magellanicus . Aquatic Biology 2: 207-216.

Bernard, K. S., Steinberg, D. K., Schofield, O. 2012. Summertime grazing impact of the dominant macrozooplankton off the Western Antarctic Peninsula . Deep-Sea Research I 62: 111-122. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2011.12.015

Kennish, M. J. and B. Fertig. 2012. Application and assessment of a nutrient pollution indicator using eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in Barnegat Bay–Little Egg Harbor Estuary, New Jersey. Aquatic Botany, 96: 23-30.