Microcosms to determine the impacts of elevated carbon dioxide on plankton composition are incubated aboard the R/V Laurence M. Gould near the West Antarctic Peninsula. Photo by Grace Saba

Fecal pellets produced by Northern anchovy in the Santa Barbara Channel that sink rapidly from the surface ocean to depth. Photo by Grace Saba.

Respiration rates are measured in Atlantic Butterfish (Peprilus triacanthus) via intermittent respirometry in swim tunnels. Photo by Grace Saba.

Generalized illustration summarizing how winter and spring climate, weather, and physical oceanographic processes, driven in part by phases of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), cascade from phytoplankton to krill recruitment in the West Antarctic Peninsula region. From Saba et al. 2014, Nature Communications, 5: 4318,
 doi: 10.1038/ncomms5318.

Antarctic krill (Euphausia suberba): a vital food source for penguins, flighted sea birds, fish, and baleen whales in the West Antarctic Peninsula Region. Photo by Chris Linder.