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Fred Grassle

J. Frederick Grassle

Benthic ecology and ocean biogeography

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Education: Ph.D., Duke University, Benthic Ecology and Ocean Biogeography

Research Interests: Ocean biogeography and geographical information systems, benthic ecology (especially continental shelf, slope, and rise communities), and ocean observing systems

Personal Interests: Going to sea whenever possible for work and pleasure. Working with other scientists to develop the Ocean Biogeographic Information System and completion of the first Census of Marine Life by 2010.

Fred Grassle

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Publications 1969 - present: (publications posted for internal use and not accesable from outside the IMCS network)


Grassle, J.F. 1969. The dangers of oil pollution on the Great Barrier Reef. Submission to the Australian senate select committee on off-shore petroleum resources. Queensland Littoral Society, pp. 12. pdf

Sanders, H.L., and J.F. Grassle 1971. The interactions of diversity, distribution and mode of reproduction among major groupings of the deep-sea benthos, pp. 260-262. In: Uda, M. (ed.) The Ocean World: Proceedings of Joint Oceanographic Assembly, Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan, Tokyo. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1972. Species diversity, genetic variability and environmental uncertainty, pp. 19-26. In: Battaglia, B. (ed.) Proceedings 5th European Marine Biology Symposium Piccin, Padua. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1973. Methods for studying the effects of marine oil spills. Background information for ocean affairs board workshop on: Iiputs, fates, and effects of petroleum in the marine environment, Airlie, Virginia. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1973 Variety in coral reef communities, pp. 247-270. In: Jones, O.A. and R. Endean (ed.) Biology and Geology of coral reefs, vol. II: Biology I. Academic Press, New York. pdf

Grassle, J.F. and H. Sanders 1973. Life histories and the role of disturbance. Deep-Sea Res. 20:643-659. pdf

Grassle, J.F., and J.P. Grassle 1974. Opportunistic life histories and genetic systems in marine benthic polychaetes. J. Mar. Res. 3:253-284. pdf

Grassle, J.F., H.L. Sanders, R.R. Hessler, G.T. Rowe, and T. McLellan 1975. Pattern and zonation-study of bathyal megafauna using research submersible Alvin. Deep-Sea Res. 22:457-481. pdf

Turekian K.K., J.K. Cochran, D.P. Kharkar, R.M. Cerrato, J.R. Vaisnys, H.L. Sanders, J.F. Grassle, and J.A. Allen 1975. Slow growth rate of a deep-sea clam determined by 228Ra chronology. Proc. Nail. Acad. Sei. USA 72:2829-2832. pdf

Heirtzler, J.R., and J.F. Grassle 1976. Deep-sea research by manned submersibles. Science 194:294-299. pdf

Grassle, J.P., and J.F. Grassle 1976. Sibling species in the marine pollution indicator Capitella (Polychaeta). Science 19:567-569. pdf

Grassle, J.F., and W. Smith 1976. Similarity measure sensitive to contribution of rare species and its use in investigation of variation in marine benthic communities. Oecologia 25:13-22. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1977. Slow recolonization of deep-sea sediment. Nature 265:618-619. pdf

Grassle, J.F., and J.P. Grassle 1977. Temporal adaptations in sibling species of Capitella, pp.177–189. In: Coull, B.C. (ed.) Ecology of the Marine Benthos. Belle W. Baruch Library in Marine Science No. 6. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, South Carolina. pdf

Smith, W. and J.F. Grassle 1977. Sampling properties of a family of diversity measures. Biometrics 33:283-292. pdf

Grassle, J.F. and J.P. Grassle 1978. Life histories and genetic variation in marine benthic organisms, pp. 347-364. In: Battaglia, B. and H.A. Beardmore (ed.) The Genetics, Ecology and Evolution of Marine Organisms. Plenum Press, New York. pdf

Grassle, J.F., J.P. Grassle, L.S. Brown-Leger, C.H. Lanyon-Duncan, and N.J. Copley 1978. Benthic communities in experimental ecosystems and the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons. Second Annual Report of the Marine Ecosystems Research Laboratory (MERL) to EPA, pp. 10. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1979. Diversity and population dynamics of benthic organisms. Oceanus 21(1):42-49. pdf

Grassle, J.F., G.P. Patil, W.K. Smith and C. Taille 1979. Galapagos Biology Expedition Participants. Galapagos '79: Initial findings of a biology quest. Oceanus 22(2):2-10. pdf

Grassle, J.F., H.L. Sanders, and W. K. Smith 1979. Faunal changes with depth in the deep-sea benthos. Ambio, Special Report, No. 6, pp. 47-50. pdf

Grassle, J.F., and J.M. Shick 1979. Introduction to the symposium: ecology of asexual reproduction in animals. Amer. Zool. 19:667-668. pdf

Humes, A.G. and J.F. Grassle 1979. Serpulidicola josephellae sp. nov. (Copepoda: Cycllpodia) from a deep-water polychaete west of Ireland. Crustaceana 36:306-315. pdf

Smith, W.D., D. Kravitz and J.F. Grassle 1979. Confidence intervals for similarity measures using the two sample jackknife. pp. 253-262. In: Orloci, L., C.R. Rao and W.M. Stiteler (ed.) Multivariate Methods in Ecological Work, International Cooperative Publishing House, Fairland, Maryland. pdf

Smith, W.D, J.F. Grassle and D. Kravitz 1979. Measures of diversity with unbiased estimates, pp. 177-191. In: Grassle, J.F., G.P. Patil, W. Smith and C. Thaille (ed.) Ecological Diversity in Theory and Practice. International Co-operative Publishing House, Fairland, Maryland. pdf

Smith, W.K., V.R. Gibson, L.S. Brown-Leger and J.F. Grassle 1979. Diversity as an indicator of pollution: cautionary results from microcosm experiments, pp. 269-277. In: Grassle, J.F., G.P. Patil, W.K. Smith and C. Taille (ed.) Ecological Diversity in Theory and Practice. International Cooperative Publishing House, Fairland, Maryland. pdf


Elmgren, R., G.A. Vargo, J.F. Grassle, J.P. Grassle, D.R. Heinle, C. Langlois and S.L. Vargo 1980. Trophic interactions in experimental marine ecosystems perturbed by oil, pp. 779-800. In: Giesy, J.P. Jr. (ed.) Microcosms in ecological research, Department of Energy Symposium Series 52, Technical Information Center, U.S. Department of Energy. pdf

Grassle, J.F.1980. In situ studies of deep-sea communities, pp. 321-332. In: Diemer, J.P., F.J. Vernberg and D. Z. Mirkes (ed.) Advanced concepts in ocean measurements. Belle W. Baruch Library of Marine Science No. 10, University South Carolina Press. Columbia, South Carolina. pdf

Grassle, J.F., J.P. Grassle, L.S. Brown-Leger, N.J. Copley, and R.F. Petrecca 1980. Quantitative studies of macrofauna in three benthic communities in experimental ecosystems. Fourth Annual Report of the Marine Ecosystems Research Laboratory (MERL) to EPA, pp. 12. pdf

Sanders, H.L., J.F. Grassle, G.R. Hampson, L.S. Morse, S. Garner-Price and C.C. Jones 1980. Anatomy of an oil spill: long-term effects from the grounding of the barge FLORIDA off West Falmouth, Massachusetts. J. Mar. Res. 38:265-380. pdf

Sherman, K., J.W. Deming, J.F. Grassle, R.V. Lynch, E. Shulenberger, and C. Taillie 1980. Marine populations: Processes and interactions, pp. 539-544. In: Diemer, F.D., F.J. Vernberg, and D. Z. Mirkes (ed.) Advanced concepts in ocean measurements for marine biology. Belle W. Baruch Insitute for Marine Biology and Coastal Research, University of South Carolina Press, Columbia. pdf

Grassle, J.F., R. Elmgren and J.P. Grassle 1981. Response of benthic communities in MERL experimental systems to low level, chronic additions of #2 fuel oil. Mar. Environ. Res. 4:279-297. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1982. The biology of hydrothermal vents: a short summary of recent findings. Mar. Tech. Soc. Jour. 16:33-38. pdf

Smith, W., V.R. Gibson and J.F. Grassle 1982. Replication in controlled marine systems: presenting the evidence, pp. 217-225. In: Grice, G.D. and M.R. Reeve (ed.) Marine mesocosms, biological and chemical research in experimental ecosystems, Springer-Verlag, New York. pdf

Grassle, J.F.1983. Introduction to the biology of hydrothermal vents, pp. 671-682. In: Rona, P.A. (ed.) Hydrothermal processes at sea floor spreading centers (NATO Conference), Plenum Press, New York. pdf

Grassle. J.F. 1984. Animals in soft sediments near hydrothermal vents. Oceanus 27:63-66. pdf

Grassle, J.P. and J.F. Grassle 1984. The utility of studying the effects of pollutants on single species populations in benthos of mesocosms and coastal ecosystems, pp. 621-642. In: White, H.H. (ed.), Concepts in marine pollution measurements, Maryland Sea Grant Publication, University of Maryland, College Park. pdf

Oviatt, C.A., M.R.Q. Pilson, S.W. Nixon, J.B. Frithsen, D.T. Rudnick, J.R. Kelly, J.F. Grassle and J.P. Grassle 1984. Recovery of a polluted estuarine system: A mesocosm experiment. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 16:203-217. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1985. Hydrothermal vent animals: distribution and biology. Science 229:713-717. pdf

Grassle, J.F., J.P. Grassle, L.S. Brown-Leger, R.F. Petrecca and N.J. Copley 1985. Subtidal macrobenthos of Narragansett Bay. Field and mesocosm studies of the effects of eutrophication and organic input on benthic populations, pp. 421-434. In: Gray, S. and M.E. Christianson (ed.) Marine biology of polar regions and effects of stress on marine organisms, John Wiley and Sons, New York. pdf

Grassle, J.F., L.S. Brown-Leger, L.S. Morse-Porteous, R.F. Petrecca and I.P. Williams 1985. Deep-sea fauna of sediments in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents. Bull. Biol. Soc. Wash. 6:443-456. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1986. The ecology of deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities. Adv. Mar. Biol. 23:301-362. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1987 Benthos, pp. 186-194. In: Milliman, J.D. and W. Redwood Wright (ed.) The marine environment of the U S. Atlantic continental slope and rise, Jones and Bartlett Publishing Inc., pp. 140-201.

Grassle, J.F. and L.S. Morse-Porteous 1987. Macrofaunal colonization of disturbed deep-sea environments and the structure of deep-sea benthic communities. Deep-Sea Res. 34(12A):1911-1950. pdf

Maciolek-Blake, N.J. and J.F. Grassle 1987. Variability of the Benthic fauna, II. The seasonal variation, 1981-1982, pp. 303-309. In: Backus, R.H. (ed.) Georges Bank, MIT Press. pdf

Dinet, A., J.F. Grassle and V. Tunnicliffe 1988. Premières observations sur la meiofaune des sites hydrothermaux de la dorsale Est-Pacifique (Guaymas, 21oN et Explorer Ridge), pp. 7-14. In: Oceanol. Acta. Hydrothermalism, Biology and Ecology Symposium Proceedings, Paris, 4-7 November, 1985. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1988. A plethora of unexpected life. Oceanus 31:41–46. pdf

Grassle, J.F., P.V.R. Snelgrove, J.R. Weinberg and R.B. Whitlatch 1988. The effect of plant material on a benthic community of the Bermuda continental slope, pp. 283-289. In: DeLuca, M.P. and I. Babb (ed.) Global venting, midwater and benthic ecological processes. National Undersea Research Center Report 88-4. Rockville, Maryland. pdf

Kaminski, M.A., J.F. Grassle and R.B. Whitlatch 1988. Life history and recolonization among agglutinated foraminifera in the Panama Basin. Proc. Second Workshop on Agglutinated Foraminifera, Vienna Austria, June 23-26, 1986. Abhandl. Geol. Bundesanstalt 41:228-244. pdf

Little, S.A., K.D. Stolzenbach and J.F. Grassle 1988. Tidal effects on temperature measurements in diffuse hydrothermal flow from Guaymas Basin. Geophy. Res. Letters 15:1491-1494. pdf

Van Dover, C.L., B. Fry, J.F. Grassle, S. Humphris and P.A. Rona 1988. Feeding biology of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent shrimp: functional morphology, gut content analyses, and stable isotopic compositions. Mar. Biol. 98:209-216. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1989. Species diversity in deep-sea communities. TREE 4:12-15. pdf

Neff, J., M. Bothner, N. Maciolek and J.F. Grassle 1989. Impacts of exploratory drilling. Mar. Environ. Res. 27:77-114. pdf

Petrecca, R.F. and J.F. Grassle 1989. Additional notes on deep-sea hydrothermal vent and cold seep soft-sediment communities, pp. 279-283. In: McMurray, G. (ed.) The Gorda Ridge Symposium Proceedings, Springer-Verlag, New York.

Van Dover, C.L., J.F. Grassle and M. Boudrias 1989. Hydrothermal vent fauna of Escanaba Trough (Gorda Ridge), pp. 285-287. In: McMurray, G. (ed.) Gorda Ridge: a frontier in the United States Exclusive Zone, Springer Verlag, New York. pdf



Grassle, J.F. 1990. Science and sludge meet at 106-mile site. The Beachcomber 41:28-29. pdf

Grassle, J.F., N.J. Maciolek, and J.A. Blake 1990. Are deep-sea communities resilient? pp. 385-393. In: Woodwell, G. (ed.) The earth in transition, patterns and process of biotic impoverishment, Cambridge University Press. pdf

Petrecca R. and J.F. Grassle 1990. Notes on fauna from several deep-sea hydrothermal vent and cold seep soft-sediment communities, pp. 279-283. In: McMurray, G.R. (ed.) Gorda Ridge: a seafloor spreading center in the United States Exclusive Economic Zone, Springer Verlag, New York. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1991. Deep-Sea Benthic Biodiversity. Bioscience 41:465-469. pdf

Grassle, J.F., P. Laserre, A.D. McIntyre and G.C. Ray. 1991. Marine biodiversity and ecosystem function: A proposal for an international programme of research. Biology International Special Issue No. 23, pp. 19. pdf

Ray, G.C. and J.F. Grassle 1991. Marine Biological Diversity. Bioscience 41:453-457. pdf

Etter, R.J. and J.F. Grassle 1992. Patterns of species diversity in the deep sea as a function of sediment particle size diversity. Nature 360:576-578. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1992 Global species diversity: a response to J.C. Briggs. J. Nat. Hist. 26:265-266. pdf

Grassle, J.F. and N.J. Maciolek 1992. Deep-sea species richness: regional and local diversity estimates from quantitative bottom samples. Am. Nat. 139(2):313-341. pdf

Snelgrove, P.V.R., J.F. Grassle and R.F. Petrecca 1992. The role of food patches in maintaining high deep-sea diversity: field experiments using hydrodynamically unbiased colonization trays. Limnol. Oceanog. 37:1543-1550. pdf

Van Dover, C.L., J.F. Grassle, B. Fry, R.H. Garritt and V.R. Starczak 1992. Stable isotopic evidence for entry of sewage-derived organic matter into a deep-sea food web. Nature 360:153-156. pdf

von Alt, C.J. and J.F. Grassle 1992. LEO-15 - An unmanned long term environmental observatory. Proc. Oceans '92, Vol. 2, pp. 849-854. pdf

Blake, J.A. and J.F. Grassle 1994. Benthic community structure on the U.S. South Atlantic slope off the Carolinas: spatial heterogeneity in a current-dominated system. Deep-Sea Res. II 41:835-874. pdf

Bothner, M.H., H. Takada, I.T. Knight, R.T. Hill, B. Butman, J.W. Farrington, R.R. Colwell and J.F. Grassle 1994. Sewage contamination in sediments beneath a deep-ocean dumpsite off New York. Mar. Env. Res. 38:43-59. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1994. Ecological patterns in the deep-sea benthos: how are they related to reproduction, larval biology, and recruitment?, pp. 306-314. In: Young, C.M. and K.J. Eckelbarger (ed.) Reproduction, larval biology, and recruitment of deep-sea benthos, Columbia University Press. pdf

Grassle, J.F. and J.P. Grassle 1994. Notes from the abyss: the effects of a patchy supply of organic material and larvae on soft-sediment benthic communities, pp. 499-515. In: Giller, P.S., A.G. Hildrew and D.G. Raffaell (ed.) Aquatic Ecology: scale, pattern and process, 34th Symposium of the British Ecological Society, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 649. pdf

Grassle, J.F. and R. Petrecca 1994. Soft-sediment hydrothermal vent communities of Escanaba Trough. In: Morton, J.L., R.A. Zierenberg, and C.A. Reiss (ed.) Geologic, hydrothermal, and biologic studies at Escanaba Trough, Gorda Ridge, offshore Northern California, U.S. Geological Survey, Bull. 2022:327-335. pdf

Lasserre, P., A. D. McIntyre, J. C. Ogden, G. C. Ray, and J. F. Grassle 1994. Marine laboratory networks for the study of the biodiversity, function and management of marine ecosystems. Biology International, Special Issue No. 31, pp. 33. pdf

Rice, A.L., M.V. Angel, J.F. Grassle, B. Hargrave, R.R. Hessler, M. Horikoshi, K. Lochte, M. Sibuet, K.L. Smith, H. Thiel and N. Vinogradova 1994. Suggested criteria for describing deep-sea benthic communities, the final report of SCOR Working Group 76. Prog. Oceanog. 34:81-100. pdf

Snelgrove, P.V.R., J.F. Grassle, and R.F. Petrecca 1994. Macrofaunal response to artificial enrichments and depressions in a deep-sea habitat. J. Mar. Res. 51:345-369. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1995. Deep-ocean biodiversity. International Marine Science Newsletter. 75/76:9 pdf

Snelgrove, P.V.R., C.A. Butman and J.F. Grassle 1995. Potential flow artifacts associated with benthic experimental gear: deep-sea mudbox examples. J. Mar. Res. 53:821-845. pdf

Snelgrove, P.V.R. and J.F. Grassle 1995. The deep sea: desert and rainforest. Oceanus 38(2):25-29. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 1996 Deep-ocean biodiversity, pp. 104-106. In: diCastri. F. and T. Younes, (ed.) Biodiversity, science and development: towards a new partnership, CAB International. pdf

Snelgrove, P.V.R., J.F. Grassle and R.F. Petrecca 1996. Experimental evidence for aging food patches as a factor contributing to high deep-sea macrofaunal diversity. Limnol. Oceanog. 41:605-614. pdf

Snelgrove, P.V.R., T.H. Blackburn, P.A. Hutchings, D.M. Alongi, J.F. Grassle, H. Hummel, G. King, I. Koike, P.J.D. Lambshead, N.B. Ramsing, and V. Solis-Weiss 1997. The importance of marine sediment biodiversity in ecosystem processes. Ambio 26(8):578-583. pdf

von Alt, C., M.P. DeLuca, S.M. Glenn, J.F. Grassle, and D.B. Haidvogel 1997. LEO-15: Monitoring and Managing Coastal Resources. Sea Technology 38(8):10-16. pdf

Glenn, S.M., D.B. Haidvogel, O. Schofield, J.F. Grassle, C.J. von Alt, E.R. Levine, and D.C. Webb 1998. Coastal predictive skill experiments at the LEO-15 national littoral laboratory. Sea Technology 39(4):63-69.

Grassle, J.F. 1998. Biologists first look at vent communities-Galápagos Rift, 1979. Oceanus 41(2):1-5. pdf

Grassle, J.F. and B.L. Matthews 1998. Workshop on biodiversity, pp. 317-320. In: Gal, L. and Halvorson (ed.). New developments in marine biotechnology, Plenum Press, New York. pdf

Grassle, J.F., S. Glenn, and C. von Alt 1998. Ocean observing systems for marine habitats. Ocean Community Conference ‘98, Marine Technology Society, Proceedings 1:567-571. pdf

Grassle, J.F., K.L. Stocks 1999. A global ocean biogeographic information system (OBIS) for the Census of Marine Life. Oceanogr.12(3):12-14. pdf

Snelgrove, P.V.R., J.P. Grassle, J.F. Grassle, R.F. Petrecca, H. Ma 1999. In situ habitat selection by settling larvae of marine soft-sediment invertebrates. Limnol. Oceanog. 44(5): 1341-1347. pdf



Glenn, S.M., J.F. Grassle, and C.J. von Alt 2000. A well-sampled ocean. The LEO approach. Oceanus 42 (1):28-30. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 2000. The ocean biogeographic information system (OBIS): an on-line, worldwide atlas for accessing, modeling and mapping marine biological data in a multidimensional context. Oceanogr. 13(3):5-9. pdf

Grassle, J.F. and C.J. Decker 2000. The Ocean Biogeographical Information System (OBIS). ASC Newsletter 28(6):8-9. pdf

Stocks, K.I., Y. Zhang, C. Flanders, and J.F. Grassle 2000. OBIS: Ocean Biogeographic Information System. The Institute of Marine and Coastal Science, Rutgers University. 2000.

Glenn, S.M., O.M.E. Schofield, R.J. Chant and J.F. Grassle 2001. The New Jersey shelf observing system. Oceans 2002. pdf

Grassle, J.F. 2001. Marine Ecosystems. In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Vol. 4, pp. 13-25. pdf

Nowlin Jr., W.D., M. Briscoe, N. Smith, M.J. McPhaden, D. Roemmich, P. Chapman, and J.F. Grassle 2001. Evolution of a sustained ocean observing system. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc., July 2001, pp. 1369-1376. pdf

Snelgrove, P.V.R. and J.F. Grassle 2001. Deep-Sea Fauna. In: Steele, J., S. Thorpe, and K. Turekian (ed.) The Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences. pdf

Snelgrove, P. V. R., J.F. Grassle, J.P. Grassle, R.F. Petrecca, and K.I. Stocks 2001. The role of colonization in establishing patterns of community composition and diversity in shallow-water sedimentary communities. J. Mar. Res. 59:813-830. pdf

Stocks, K.I., and J.F. Grassle 2001. Effects of microalgae and food limitation on the recolonization of benthic macrofauna in in situ saltmarsh-pond mesocosms. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 221:93-104. pdf

Zhang, Y.P., J.F. Fracassi, J.E. Wiggins, S.M. Glenn and J.F. Grassle 2001. RODAN: Rutgers Ocean Data Access Network Powered by Java Technologies. American Meteorological Society: Fifth Symposium on Integrated Observing Systems, pp. 21-25. pdf

Schofield, O., T. Bergmann, P. Bissett, J.F. Grassle, D.B. Haidvogel, J. Kohut, M. Moline, and S.M. Glenn 2002. The long-term ecosystem observatory: an integrated coastal observatory. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 27(2):146-154. pdf

Hankin, S., L. Bernard, P. Cornillon, J.F. Grassle, D. Legler, J. Lever, and S. Worley 2003. Designing the data management and communications infrastructure for the U.S. integrated ocean observing system. Mar. Techno. Soc. J. 37(3):51-54.

Stocks, K. and J.F. Grassle 2003. Benthic macrofaunal communities in partially impounded salt marshes in Delaware: comparisons with natural marshes and responses to sediment exposure. Estuaries 26(3):777-789. pdf

Zhang, Y. and J.F. Grassle 2003. A portal for the Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Oceanologica Acta 25:193-197. pdf

Madin, L., F. Grassle, F. Azam, D. Obura, M. Reaka-Kudla, M. Sibuet, G. Stone, K. Stocks, A. Walls, G. Allen 2004. The Unknown Ocean. In: Glover, L.K. and S.A. Earle (ed.) Defying Ocean’s End, Island Press. pdf

Costello, M.J, J.F. Grassle, Y. Zhang, K. Stocks, E. Vanden Berghe 2005. Where is what and what is where? Online mapping of marine species. MarBEF Newsletter. Spring 2005, pp. 20-22. pdf

Wood, J.B., P.Y. Zhang, M.J. Costello, J.F. Grassle 2005. An introduction to OBIS, In: Miloslavich P. and E. Klein (ed.) Caribbean marine biodiversity: the known and the unknown. DEStech Publications Inc., Lancaster Pennsylvania USA, pp. 253-254.

Zhuang, W., Y. Zhang, J.F. Grassle 2005. Identifying erroneous data using outlier detection techniques. In: Vanden Berghe, E.W., M.J. Appletans, C.P. Pissierssens (ed.) Proceedings of Ocean Bioiversity Informatics: an international conference on marine biodiversity data management, Hamburg, Germany, 29 November-December, 2004, Paris, UNESCO/IOC, VLIZ, BSH, 2007. vi + 192 pp. (IOC Workshop Report 202), (VLIZ Special Publications, 37). pdf

Grassle, J.F., P.A. Ramey, and R.M Petrecca 2009. Temporal and spatial variation in infaunal community structure in physically active continental shelf sediments at a long-term ecosystem observatory (LEO-15) off New Jersey, USA. J. Mar.Res., in press.

Ramey, P.A., J.P. Grassle, J.F. Grassle, and R.M. Petrecca 2009. Small-scale, patchy distributions of infauna in hydrodynamically mobile continental shelf sands: do ripple crests and troughs support different communities? Cont. Shelf Res. 29:2222-2233. pdf

Rona, P.A., A. Seilacher, C. de Vargas, A.J. Gooday, J.M. Bernhard, S. Bowser, C. Vetriani, C.O. Wirsen, L. Mullineaux, R. Sherrell, J.F. Grassle, S. Low, and R.A. Lutz 2009. Paleodictyon nodosum: a living fossil on the deep-sea floor. Deep-Sea Res. II 56:1700-1712. pdf